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from a barrel vault to a groined vault

intersecting barrel vaults

Two perpendiculary placed intersecting barrel vaults form a groined vault.

market of Trajanus

The central hall of the market of Trajanus (early 2nd century - Rome) is roofed by a serie of groined vaults. The long central barrel vault is intersected by several perpendiculary placed barrel vaults. This solution is a better solution than one simple barrel vault.
  • as a construction: the perpendiculary placed barrel vaults neutralize each others horizontal forces.
  • as a spacial result: the hall becomes higher and larger. The perpendiculary placed barrel vaults allow better natural illumination of the hall providing it a much more open character.

Baths Caracalla

Baths Caracalla
The baths of Caracalla (early 3th century - Rome) had place for thousands of bathing guests. The construction reaches a span of 30 m, using groined vaults.